The process of making biscuits
The main raw material of biscuit is wheat flour, in addition to sugar, starch, oil, dairy products, eggs, essence, leavening agent and other auxiliary materials.
The above raw and auxiliary materials are made into dough by the dough mixer, and then rolled into dough sheets by the rolling mill. The billet is pressed by the molding machine, and finally baked in the oven. After cooling, the biscuit becomes crisp and delicious.
According to different recipes and production processes, sweet cookies can be divided into two major categories, namely, ductile cookies and crisp cookies.
Most of the impression modeling of the toughness biscuit is concave flower, which has smooth appearance, smooth surface, clear print, hierarchical section structure, crisp chewing at the entrance, chewability, and pinhole on the surface (the pinhole is the vent hole in the production process, and the purpose of air release is to achieve the leveling of the surface and bottom).
Crispy biscuit appearance pattern is obvious, most of them are convex pattern, soft structure, soft hole is significant, sugar, oil content is high toughness biscuit.
Ingredient recipe (hard biscuit)
Standard powder 50kg, lard 0.63kg, baking soda 0.4kg, granulated sugar 10.5kg, phospholipids 1kg, ammonium bicarbonate 0.25kg, caramel 2kg, refined salt 0.25kg, banana essential oil 88ml, vegetable oil 3.8kg.
2. Toy cookies
Standard powder 50kg, vegetable oil 7kg, baking soda 0.4kg, sugar 13kg, phospholipids 0.5kg, ammonium bicarbonate 0.25kg, caramel 0.5kg, refined salt 0.2kg, orange essential oil 60ml.
3. Popular cookies
Standard powder 50 kg, phospholipid 0.5 kg, ammonium bicarbonate 0.2 kg, granulated sugar 13 kg, refined salt 0.25 kg, pineapple essential oil 106 ml, vegetable oil 2.5 kg, baking soda 0.3 kg.
4. Rose cookies
Standard powder 50 kg, vegetable oil 7 kg, baking soda 0.35 kg, sugar 12 kg, phospholipids 0.5 kg, ammonium bicarbonate 0.15 kg, caramel 1.5 kg, refined salt 0.25 kg, osmanthus 0.7 kg.
5. Calcium cookies
Standard powder 50kg, lard 2kg, ammonium bicarbonate 0.2kg, granulated sugar 9.5kg, phospholipid 0.75kg, caramel 5kg, refined salt 0.25kg, cherry essential oil 106ml, vegetable oil 3.5kg, baking soda 0.4kg, ammonium bicarbonate 0.5kg.
Ingredient recipe (soft biscuit)
1. Sweet shortbread
Standard powder 50 kg, phospholipid 0.5 kg, ammonium bicarbonate 0.2 kg, granulated sugar 20 kg, refined salt 0.15 kg, vanillin 8 g, vegetable oil 5 kg, baking soda 0.3 kg.
2. Orange crackers
Standard powder 50 kg, vegetable oil 5.5 kg, baking soda 0.3 kg, granulated sugar 18 kg, phospholipid 0.5 kg, ammonium bicarbonate 0.15 kg, caramel ⒉ kg, refined salt 0.3 kg, orange essential oil 80 ml.
3. Chocolate cookies
Standard powder 50 kg, milk powder 1.5 kg, vanilla 38 g, starch 2.5 kg, phospholipid 0.5 kg, antioxidant *(* from May 1 solstice every year at the end of September, the rest of the time, if no lard is used in the formula can not add antioxidant, lard must be added in the formula, the same below.)
1.6g granulated sugar, 16.5kg refined salt, 0.25kg citric acid, 0.8g caramel, 1.5kg baking soda, 0.3kg cocoa powder, 5kg vegetable oil, 8.35kg ammonium bicarbonate, 0.2kg banana sugar 1.5kg.
4. Coconut crackers
Special powder 50kg, phospholipids 0.8kg, coconut essential oil 25ml, granulated sugar 17kg, refined salt 0.3kg, caramel 1.5kg, baking soda 0.3kg, antioxidant 2g, coconut oil 10kg, ammonium bicarbonate 0.15kg, citric acid 1g.
5. Cream cookies
Special powder 50kg, lard 11.5kg, ammonium bicarbonate 0.15kg, starch 3.25kg, milk powder 2.5kg, butter essential oil 35ml, granulated sugar 17.5kg, refined salt 0.5kg, antioxidant 2.3g, caramel 1.5kg, baking soda 0.3kg, citric acid 1.15g.
Special powder 50kg, egg powder 0.4kg, orange essential oil 9ml, starch 2.3kg, refined salt 0.15kg, vanillin 28g, granulated sugar 18.5kg, baking soda 0.25kg, antioxidant 2.2g, lard 11kg, ammonium bicarbonate 0.15kg, citric acid 1.1g, milk powder 1.5kg.
Raw material formula (Shanghai Yimin Food Factory No. 3)
1. Vanilla cookies
Standard powder 250 kg, phospholipid ⒉ 5 kg, vanillin 150 grams, white granulated sugar water *(* formula used in the concentration of granulated sugar water 68%, the rest of the same.
110kg bicarbonate of soda 2kg antioxidants 7g refined oil blend 35kg ammonium bicarbonate 1kg citric acid 4g.
2. Toy cookies
Standard powder 250kg, baking soda 2.5kg, antioxidant 5.5g, refined mixture 27.5 kg, ammonium bicarbonate 1kg, citric acid 3g, phospholipids 5kg, bayberry essential oil 275ml, Cuban sugar water 110kg.
3. Lemon cookies
Standard powder 250kg, phospholipids 1.25kg, lemon essential oil 200ml, granulated sugar water 55kg, baking soda 1kg, antioxidant 3g, refined oil mixture 16.25kg, ammonium bicarbonate 0.25kg, citric acid 1.5g.
250kg refined white powder, 2.5kg phospholipid, 150g vanillin, 120kg granulated sugar water, 1.5kg bicarbonate, 8g antioxidant, 40kg refined oil blend, 0.75kg ammonium bicarbonate, and 4g citric acid.
5. Little milk cookies
250kg refined white powder, 11.5kg fresh eggs, 18g antioxidants, 110kg granulated sugar water, 2.5kg baking soda, 4g citric acid, 40kg lard, 1kg ammonium bicarbonate, 0.5kg refined salt, 3kg whole milk powder, 125g vanillin.
The process flow
Whether it is flexible biscuit or crisp biscuit, although its formula, feeding sequence and operation methods are different, but have the following basic process:
Pretreatment of raw and auxiliary materials → preparation of dough → rolling → molding → baking → cooling → finishing → packaging → finished product
1. Dough preparation: Dough preparation is the key process in biscuit production.
The production technology of crispy biscuit and ductile biscuit is different, and the method of making the dough is also different. The method of crispy biscuit dough is made of cold powder, while the method of ductile biscuit dough is made of hot powder.
(1) soft dough.
The soft dough of the biscuit is the dough prepared under the condition of protein hydration.
The content of oil and sugar in the ingredients of the crisp dough is higher than that of the pliable dough, the moisture content of the crisp dough is lower, the temperature is lower, the stirring time is shorter, and some conditions can inhibit the formation of gluten, so as to make the crisp dough with certain binding force and strong plasticity.
The preparation of crisp dough requires strict control of water quantity, dough temperature and stirring time.
On the contrary, the water quantity is slightly more than the ratio of ingredients, the temperature is higher than the control requirements, the stirring time is slightly longer and so on can destroy the crisp structure.
Method of preparing soft dough
First, sugar, oil, milk, eggs, leavening agent and other auxiliary materials and appropriate amount of water into the dough mixing machine evenly stir to form emulsion, and then flour, starch into the flour mixing machine, 6~12 minutes.
Essence should be in adjust the later period that makes emulsion rejoin, or join when throw flour, so as to control the volatilization of fragrance excess.
Due to the high temperature in summer, the stirring time is shortened by about 2~3 minutes.
The dough temperature should be controlled at 22-28 °C.
For dough with high grease content, the temperature should be controlled at 22 ~25°C.
In summer, when the temperature is high, the dough can be made with ice water to lower the dough temperature.
If the content of wet gluten in flour is higher than 40%, the oil and flour can be mixed into a pastry dough, and then other auxiliary materials can be added, or part of the flour can be removed from the recipe, and the same amount of starch can be replaced.
(2) hard dough.
The dough of the ductile biscuit is made under the condition that the protein is fully hydrated.
Tough dough ingredients are low in oil and sugar, so the gluten in the flour is easy to absorb water and swell, forming a large amount of gluten.
In order to prevent shrinkage and deformation, a certain amount of hot water can be added during dough preparation to raise the dough temperature and promote the gluten to fully expand and moisten. At the same time, the dough will gradually become relaxed under the mechanical stretching action of dough mixing for a long time.
Therefore, the preparation time of the ducible dough should be long to ensure the time for the protein to swell and form gluten and then lose its strength through mechanical stretching, so as to make the dough obtain the required technological properties.
In general, auxiliary materials such as oil, sugar, milk and eggs are mixed with heated water or hot syrup in a dough mixer, and then flour is added to make the dough.
If an improver is used, it should be added when the dough is initially formed (after 10 minutes in all cases).
Then leavening agents are added successively in the process of preparation.With the essence, continue the modulation.Before and after about 40 minutes or more, can be adjusted into a ductile dough.
The temperature of the ductile dough is about 32 ~35″C in the room temperature of 25’C in winter and 35~38″C in the room temperature of 30~35″C in summer.
When the ductile dough is prepared and mature, it must be left standing for more than 10 minutes to keep the dough stable before rolling.
2. Rolling: The prepared dough shall be rolled to a sheet of uniform thickness, smooth shape, smooth surface and fine texture, which is ready for molding.
(1) soft dough rolling sheet: the purpose of soft dough rolling is to get a flat surface, but a long time rolling will form a toughening of the surface.
Due to the high content of oil and sugar in the crisp dough, the texture of the rolled dough is soft and easy to break, so it should not be rolled many times, not to mention 90° turning, generally with 3~7 one-way rolling rolling can be, there are also one-way rolling rolling.
It is not necessary to leave the dough standing for a long time before rolling. The thickness of the flaky dough is about 2cm, which is thicker than that of the ductile dough. This is because the flaky dough is easy to break and the flaky dough is soft, so it can reach the required thickness after passing the roll of the molding machine.
(2) hard dough rolling sheet: hard dough before rolling, the dough to rest for a period of time, the purpose is to remove the dough during mixing internal tension, formed by the stretch reducing viscosity and elasticity of the dough, rest to improve the quality of products and another process performance, let stand for the length of time, has close relationship with the dough temperature, high temperature, the dough must stand for short time, low temperature,
Long standing time.
When the temperature of the dough reaches 40C, it should stand for 10~20 minutes.
The number of rolling of the ductile dough is usually 9~13 times. When rolling, the dough is folded and rotated at an Angle of 90° for several times. After passing the rolling process, the dough is pressed into a piece of fixed thickness.
In the rolling process, it is assumed that folding and rotation at 90° Angle are not carried out, the longitudinal tension of the surface exceeds the transverse tension, and the biscuit billet will shrink and deform longitudinally after forming.
Therefore, the face after several rolling, the face can be turned to 90° Angle, transverse rolling, so that the vertical and horizontal tension tends to – as far as possible, so that the forming biscuit billet can maintain no contraction, no deformation of the state.
3. Molding/forming: by rolling rolling process rolled into the surface, by various types of molding machine made of various shapes of biscuit billet.
Such as chicken shape, fish shape, rabbit shape, horse shape and various decorative patterns.
4 baking: dough rolling, forming biscuit billet, made of biscuit billet into the oven, under the action of high temperature, the moisture contained in the biscuit internal evaporation, starch gelatinization after heating, leavening agent decomposition and biscuit volume increase.
Gluten protein heat metamorphism and solidification, the final formation of porous crisp biscuit products.
When the gluten is heated, it begins to denature and solidify, and removes the bound water.
When the temperature rises to 80C, all the gluten in the biscuit is deformed and solidified.
The leavening agent also decomposes in the gluten and produces a large amount of gas, and the gluten network forms a large number of fine bubbles, thus forming a porous structure.
The temperature of the baking oven and the baking time of the biscuit billet vary with the biscuit variety and the size of the block.
– The baking oven temperature of a biscuit is maintained at about 230~270C.
The furnace temperature of crisp biscuit and toughness biscuit is 240 to 260°C, bake for 3.5~5 minutes, and the moisture content of the finished product is 2~4%.
Soda biscuit, furnace temperature of 260 ~270C, baking time of 4~5 minutes, finished product moisture content of 2.5~5.5%.
The coarse biscuit, the furnace temperature is 200~210°C, baking for 7~10 minutes, the finished product moisture content is 2~ 5%.
In short, if the temperature of the baking oven is slightly higher, the baking time can be shortened appropriately.
The furnace temperature is too low or too high can affect the quality of the finished product, such as too high easy to scorch, too low to make the finished product immature, white color and so on.
5 cooling: baked cookies, the surface layer and the center of the temperature difference is very big, high temperature, low temperature, temperature distribution slow.
In order to prevent biscuits from cracking and shape shrinkage, must be cooled before packaging.
The baking temperature of the cookies is generally above 100C, and the moisture content is slightly higher than the moisture content of the finished products after cooling.
Fresh cookie texture is soft, in the cooling process, biscuit internal temperature continues to drop, biscuit internal moisture will evaporate, gradually reach inside and outside – to.
If the cookies are not cooled after the oven, the waste heat is not released before the packaging, not only the moisture in the cookies is not easy to evaporate, the oil in the cookies is also easy to oxidize and rancidity, the cookies are prone to mildew and can not be eaten.
In summer, autumn and spring, natural cooling method can be used.
If the cooling is accelerated, a blower can be used, but the flow rate of air should not exceed 2.5 m/s.
Assuming that the cooling rate is too fast and the water evaporates too fast, it is easy to produce cracking phenomenon.
The most suitable temperature for cooling is 30~40°C, and the indoor relative humidity is 70~80%.
6. Packaging: The purpose of packaging is threefold: one is to prevent biscuits from being broken in the process of transportation;
Two is to prevent contamination by microorganisms and deterioration;
Three is to prevent the rancidity of biscuits, hygroscopic or dehydration and “go oil”.
The packaging can be packed in 500g or 250g packages according to customer’s requirements.
Large packages of 10~20 kg are used for long-distance transportation.
In order to ensure the quality of products, the use of asphalt paper in the packing box as the inner lining paper.
The cartons are fastened with straps of iron or paper cord.
7 storage: biscuits are a kind of storable food, but also must consider the storage conditions.
Cookies are good for storage
The conditions are low temperature, dry, air circulation, clean environment, avoid sunlight place.
The storage temperature should be left at 20°C
Right, relative humidity should not exceed 70~75%.